Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorBhebhe, Viola
dc.date.accessioned2018-12-20T13:36:38Z
dc.date.available2018-12-20T13:36:38Z
dc.date.issued2017-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://localhost:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/8919
dc.description.abstractChitin and Chitosan from two species of mushrooms Pleurotus Ostreatus and Agaricus Bisporus were extracted through three procedural steps that are 1. deprotenisation where alkaline soluble proteins are removed using 4 M NaOH solution and refluxing with ethanoic acid to remove acid soluble proteins, 2. Decolourisation was done using 1% KMnO4 followed by 1% oxalic acid, and then 3. Deacetyation of chitin using 60% NaOH solution for 2 hours. Deacetyation is done to remove the acetyl groups in chitin and convert ß(1→4)- N-acetyl-Dglucosamine to α(1→4) linked 2-amino-2-deoxy-ß-D-glucopyranose (Chitosan). The effect of different parameters was investigated in the deproteinisation stage as follows:-temperature was investigated by using 80 ºC and then 100 ºC using 4 M NaOH for 3 hours, with 80 ºC maintained using a water bath, concentrations of 2 M and 4 M NaOH were used at 100 ºC for 3 hours, time of boiling with 4 M NaOH at 100 ºC was investigated at 1 hour and 3 hours. Crude Chitin produced using the different parameters was analysed using the FT IR. A yield of 11.6% was produced for Pleurotus ostreatus Chitin and 13.3% for Agaricus Bisporus Chitin. The corresponding Chitosan yields were 73% and 74.2% respectively, for the product from 4M NaOH, 100 ºC, 3 hours. Best Chitin quality was obtained from Sample B (agaricus bisporus) in terms of quality and resolution of FTIR spectra although it had an off white colour as compared to the sample A (pleurotus ostreatus). The bulk density was a bit lower for sample B as compared with sample A , that is, 0.344 g/cm3 and 0.400 g/cm3 respectively. The FTIR spectra gave the expected functional groups for both Chitin and Chitosan under all the conditions/parameters tested. Functional groups that are common to both Chitin and Chitosan like the OH bend, C-O-C bridge, CH and C-C stretches were observed, however for Chitin the C=O stretch was also obsevered which confirmed quality of product. The NH2 stretch also confirmed the quality of Chitosan produced. These results concur with theory and literature.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherBUSEen_US
dc.subjectMushroom wasteen_US
dc.subjectMushroom extracten_US
dc.subjectCommercial mushroomen_US
dc.titleExtraction of chitin and chitosan from commercial mushrooms waste: a comparative study on the yield of chitin and chitosan from pleurotus ostreatus and agaricus bisporus mushroomsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record