Accumulation of heavy metals in fish and assessment of potential public health risk due to dietary exposure
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Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were determined in tissues of Oreochromis macrochir and Tilapia rendalli fish species of different lengths collected from Seke Dam in August, 2016. The potential health risk of the local population associated with dietary exposure to heavy metal-contaminated fish was estimated. Fish lengths and wet weight were measured at site. Fish samples were preserved under ice-cold conditions in separate zip-log bags. Tissues (muscle, gills and fins) were cautiously dissected for digestion and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using FAAS. Results showed that heavy metal concentration in fish tissues varied significantly at (p < 0.05) and was in the order Fin > Gills > Muscle for both species. Mean concentrations of Cu and Pb for O. macrochir and Cd for T. rendalli insignificantly increased with increasing length (10.1 - 15cm < 15.1 - 20cm < 10.1 - 25cm) but for the other metals, there was no consistent pattern. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in the fish exceeded the maximum tolerable limit set by FAO heavy metal consumption through fish food. Health risk assessment indices of consumers from the intake of metal-contaminated fish were > 1. The Hazard Index through consumption of heavy metal-contaminated fish from estimated HRIs was > 1, indicating that there is significant potential health risk associated with the consumption of fish from the Seke Dam.